countries often nationalized, the United States regulated. Off-patent drugs account for 88 percent of reimbursable packs sold on average for member states of the EU (European Commission, 1998 and this off-patent share is expected to women entrepreneurship research papers grow as patents expire on many of the current leading drugs. They conclude that neither competition nor regulation had a significant impact in reducing overall hospital costs. Scopus Citations, view all citations for this article on Scopus. Indeed, as pointed out by Robert Baldwin and colleagues (1998 it extends to mechanisms which are not the products of state activity, nor part of any institutional arrangement, such as the development of social norms and the effects of markets in modifying behavior. Washington.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press, 1994. For therapeutic substitutes, the results here confirm previous findings (Reekie, 1996; Towse and Leighton, 1999) that successive molecules to enter a therapeutic category do so at lower prices than those of established entrants. The rate of establishment increased dramatically, from fewer than five new autonomous agencies per year from the 1960s to the 1980s, to more than twenty agencies per year from the 1990s to 2002 (rising to almost forty agencies per year between 19).
Generic market shares of off-patent products are significantly lower in countries with strict price or reimbursement regulation, such as France, Italy or Japan, than in the US, the UK, Canada and Germany, which have less strict price regulation. While regulatory agencies are not new, their growth and proliferation is the outstanding feature of the emergence and consolidation of the regulatory state. Section 6 reports product-level regression analysis of product prices and tests for significant differences between countries.
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Decentering Regulation: Understanding the Role of Regulation and Self-regulation in a Post-regulatory World. Kaiser foundation health plan., patient portals: survey of nursing informaticists., management studies in medical education. The narrow definition of regulation and the broader one are coming together in the literature of regulatory capitalism in order to denote a global order that is characterized by the simultaneous growth of plural forms of regulation. The expansion in the number of regulatory agencies, and arguably also in the scope of regulation and of the policy capacities of these agencies, has been manifest since the 1990s in the popularity of the notion of the regulatory state. Economic theory indicates that uniform prices would not be optimal and that price differences (Ramsey pricing) for patented products are the most efficient practical strategy to pay for the common costs of R D that serve all consumers. Bibliography: Ayres, Ian, and John Braithwaite. Thus, one of the most widely cited definitions of regulation suggests that regulation is a sustained and focused control exercised by a public agency over activities that are valued by the community. One relevant example is the ability of big supermarket chains to set standards of food manufacturing, processing, and marketing all over the world. Yet, while the number of regulatory agencies in the United States has not grown since the mid-1970s, such agencies have become popular elsewhere in the world. Are managed care's efforts to overhaul its image too little, too late?, robinson-patman update: de modena. Section 3 reports price and quantity indexes, and compares the results here with those in previous cross-national price comparisons. An emphasis on the workings, characteristics, failures, and merits of regulation by administrative agencies is prevalent in the literature on regulation.
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