excluded from a decision-making process. Many agencies or individuals choose to exclude or minimize public participation in planning efforts claiming citizen participation is too expensive and time consuming. The democratic ideology which underlies the North American political structure has as a principle tenet the right to participate in decision making. For example, public relations efforts can reach a larger number of citizens, while public partnership limits participation to a few (Cogan,. Many "rational" policy decisions are made using the policy analysis process. To produce better decisions. A number of legislative mandates exist that formalize Forest Service long-range planning efforts.
Spirit of cooperation and trust between the agency and the public. Public participation is one approach that the Forest Service can use to help generate consensus and approval in it's decision-making. This statement has important implications with respect to Forest Service decisions. Citizen participation was institutionalized in the mid-1960s with President Lyndon Johnson's Great Society programs (Cogan Sharpe, 1986. However, input from citizen groups outside organizational boundaries can help provide more comprehensive information on all aspects of the policy analysis process. A review of this literature indicates there are some commonly accepted principles that can be applied in the development and implementation of a citizen participation program.
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Because of the reasons stated above, each specific project will demand a trinity college essay writing competition 2017 different approach to public involvement. The third issue is with respect to the amount and form of consultation. A wide variety of publics are active in following the agency's decisions from the national and regional level, down to the timber sale level. Cogan states "with few exceptions, a successful public involvement program incorporates several techniques" (Cogan,. These people should not be surprised, rather, they should be informed. Planning Analysis: The Theory of Citizen Participation, introduction, citizen participation is a process which provides private individuals an opportunity to influence public decisions and has long been a component of the democratic decision-making process. The second issue is: who does each group represent?
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